Announcing the publication of the first papers in GHEG

GHG blog image - cover
We are delighted to announce the publication of the first papers in Global Health, Epidemiology and Genomics. As GHEG is fully Open Access, these papers, and all papers published in the future, are freely accessible online. Here we provide a brief summary of our first three publications.

 A forum for global population health, technological advances and implementation science
 Manjinder Sandhu

A welcome editorial by our Editor in Chief, marking the launch of Global Health, Epidemiology and Genomics. Dr Sandhu highlights the strengths of the broad interdisciplinary scope of the journal and its international editorial board and invites the global health community to engage and contribute to the journal so that it becomes a valuable, practical and informative resource.
Read the full article here

 

favicon Study Profile: The Durban Diabetes Study (DDS): a platform for chronic disease research
 Thomas Hird et al.

A study profile of The Durban Diabetes Study (DDS), an on-going population-based cross-sectional survey of an urban black population in Durban, South Africa. The DDS was established to investigate a broad range of lifestyle, medical and genetic factors and their association with diabetes. It provides a rich platform for investigating the distribution, interrelation and aetiology of other chronic diseases and their risk factors, which can be utilised for other research studies.
Read the full article here

 

Favicon long Capitalizing on Natural Experiments in Low- to Middle- Income Countries to Explore Epigenetic Contributions to Disease Risk in Migrant Populations
 J. Jaime Miranda et al.

 

A commentary on the value of epigenetics as a tool for understanding differential disease risk in migrant populations. The authors highlight the merit of exploring migrant chronic disease risk in low- to middle-income countries, particularly in the context of rural-to-urban migration, with increasing urbanisation in this setting.
Read the full article here
More articles will be published in the coming weeks, and you can be notified when new articles are published by signing up to content alerts here. Here’s a preview of what’s coming soon:

  • H3Africa Multi-Centre Study of the Prevalence and Environmental and Genetic Determinants of Type 2 Diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa: Study Protocol
    Kenneth Ekoru et al.
  • Regulatory Developments in the Conduct of Clinical Trials in India
    Dhvani Mehta and Ranjit Roy Chaudhury

GHEG accepts original research articles, brief reports, structured reviews and commentaries as well as protocols, research resources and analysis. We are waiving the Article Processing Charge for all articles submitted to GHEG before the end of 2016. We invite contributions from a range of disciplines:
Epidemiology, Clinical trials, Genetics, Observational studies, Qualitative studies, Anthropological studies, Social science, Community intervention, Health systems, Health services, Population genetics, Population history.
For further information on the journal and how to submit please visit our website. Or if you wish to submit your manuscript directly please visit: http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/gheg.

Victims of childhood bullying at higher risk of cardiovascular disease in later life « King’s College London

bullying

People who experienced bullying in childhood are more likely to be overweight and show higher levels of blood inflammation in later life, finds new research from the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience (IoPPN) at King’s College London. This puts them at higher risk of heart attack and various age-related conditions, including type-2 diabetes, according to the study authors. 

The findings are based on data from the British National Child Development Study (NCDS), a long-term study of all children born in England, Scotland and Wales during one week in 1958. The study, published today in Psychological Medicine, includes 7,102 children whose parents provided information on their child’s exposure to bullying when they were aged 7 and 11. Measures of blood inflammation and obesity were obtained from information and samples collected when participants were aged 45.


Professor Louise Arseneault
, senior author from the IoPPN at King’s College London, said: ‘Our research has already shown a link between childhood bullying and risk of mental health disorders in children, adolescents and adults, but this study is the first to widen the spectrum of adverse outcomes to include risks for cardiovascular disease at mid-life. Evidently, being bullied in childhood does get under your skin.’

Researchers found that 26 per cent of women who had been occasionally or frequently bullied in childhood were obese at the age of 45, compared to 19 per cent of those who had never been bullied. A second measure of abdominal fat was calculated by dividing waist measurements by hip size (waist-hip ratio). Both men and women who suffered childhood bullying showed greater waist-hip ratio at 45 years old than non-bullied participants. Findings remained significant when controlling for childhood risk factors including parental social class, participants’ BMI and psychopathology and also key adult variables such as social class, smoking, diet and exercise.

Frequent bullying in childhood also led to higher levels of inflammation at mid-life in men and women. Researchers found that 20 per cent of those who had been frequently bullied, compared to 16 per cent of those who had never been bullied, had C-reactive protein (CRP) levels of more than 3mg/L. High CRP levels increase risk of heart disease by promoting atherosclerosis, a condition where arteries become clogged up by fatty substances. Those who were frequently bullied in childhood also had raised levels of fibrinogen, a protein which promotes the formation of blood clots.

Bullying is characterised by repeated hurtful actions by other children, where the victim finds it difficult to defend themselves. In the NCDS, 28 per cent of participants were bullied occasionally in childhood and 15 per cent were bullied frequently. These figures are consistent with prevalence rates of childhood bullying victimisation today.

Professor Louise Arseneault said: ‘Bullying is a part of growing up for many children from all social groups. While many important school programmes focus on preventing bullying behaviours, we tend to neglect the victims and their suffering. Our study implies that early interventions in support of the bullied children could not only limit psychological distress but also reduce physical health problems in adulthood.’

Dr Andrea Danese, a co-author from the IoPPN at King’s, said: ‘Taking steps to tackle obesity and high blood inflammation is important because both can lead to serious and potentially life-threatening conditions, such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

‘The effects of being bullied in childhood on the risk for developing poor health later in life are relatively small compared to other factors. However, because obesity and bullying are quite common these days, tackling these effects may have a real impact.’

He added: ‘The main focus of prevention for age-related disease has traditionally been on unhealthy adult behaviours, such as smoking, physical inactivity, and poor diet. These are clearly important but our research highlights the need to trace the roots of these lifelong risk trajectories back to psychosocial experiences in childhood.’

This research was funded by the British Academy and the Royal Society.

via King’s College London –Victims of childhood bullying at higher risk of cardiovascular disease in later life

The full paper, published in Psychological Medicine, “Bullying victimization in childhood predicts inflammation and obesity at mid-life: a five-decade birth cohort study” by  R. Takizawa, A. Danese, B. Maughan and L. Arseneault is can be viewed here free of charge until 15th July 2015 .

 

Cardiovascular risk factors extremely high in people with psychosis « King’s College London

Extremely high levels of cardiovascular risk factors have been found in people with established psychosis, with central obesity evident in over 80 per cent of participants, in a study by researchers from the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM) and King’s College London.

In the largest study of its kind in the UK, drawing on a sample of more than 400 outpatients with psychosis, it was discovered that nearly half of the sample were obese (48 per cent), with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or more. Additionally, nearly all women and most men had a waist circumference above the International Diabetes Federation’s (IDF) threshold for central obesity. According to this measure 83 per cent of patients were centrally obese: 95 per cent of females and 74 per cent of males. Central obesity refers to excessive fat around the stomach and abdomen, to the extent that it is likely to have a negative impact on health.

The majority of participants tested (57 per cent) met the IDF’s criteria for metabolic syndrome, which is a cluster of biochemical and physiological abnormalities associated with the development of heart disease, stroke and type-2 diabetes. A fifth met the criteria for diabetes and 30 per cent showed a higher risk of going on to develop diabetes.

Although cardiovascular risk factors are common in psychosis, this UK study reports some of the highest rates worldwide, reinforcing the need to incorporate weight and cardiovascular risk assessment and management into the routine care of people with psychosis.

Data was collected as part of the NIHR-funded IMPaCT trial and the study took place within community mental health teams in five mental health NHS Trusts in urban and rural locations across England.

The study, published in Psychological Medicine, also identified lifestyle choices likely to add to cardiovascular risk, with 62 per cent of the sample reported to be smokers, greatly in excess of the general UK population smoking rates of 20 per cent. Lack of exercise was also commonplace, with only 12 per cent of participants engaging in high intensity physical activity.

Dr Fiona Gaughran, senior author from the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience (IoPPN) at King’s College London, and the National Psychosis Unit at SLaM, said: ‘We already know that diagnosis of a psychotic illness such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder is associated with a reduced life expectancy of between 10 to 25 years. This mortality gap is largely due to natural causes, including cardiac disease. The worryingly high levels of cardiovascular risk shown in our study indicate that a much greater emphasis on physical activity is needed for those with severe mental illnesses, as well as a more significant focus on supporting attempts to quit smoking.

‘While previous research has demonstrated that people gain weight on starting anti-psychotics, our study of people who have had psychosis for nearly 16 years on average found no difference in the rates of cardiovascular risk between the various different anti-psychotic medications. Research is urgently needed into the best ways to reduce existing cardiovascular risk in people with psychosis, prevent weight gain and promote healthy lifestyles in the early stages of the illness.’

The research paper summarises independent research funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) under its IMPaCT Programme Grant (Reference Number RP-PG-0606-1049).

via King’s College London –Cardiovascular risk factors extremely high in people with psychosis

 

The full paper, published in Psychological Medicine, “Cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome in people with established psychotic illnesses: baseline data from the IMPaCT randomized controlled trial” by P. Gardner-Sood, J. Lally, S. Smith et al. is published open access and can be viewed here.

Cambridge launch new open access journal – Global Health, Epidemiology and Genomics

GHEG cover_final2

Cambridge unveils new Open Access journal – Global Health, Epidemiology and Genomics (GHEG)

Cambridge University Press is delighted to announce a major new open access journal, Global Health, Epidemiology and Genomics (GHEG), dedicated to publishing and disseminating research that addresses and increases understanding of global and population health issues through the application of population science, genomics and applied technologies.

Global Health, Epidemiology and Genomics is the Press’s second Open Access journal in the field of global health, joining Global Mental Health which launched in 2014. Spanning both non-communicable and communicable diseases, GHEG will specifically integrate epidemiology, genomics and related technological advances in the global health context. Topics relevant to GHEG will include studies, methods and resources relating to global population health, disease aetiology, variation in disease susceptibility, drug resistance and surveillance, health care and health care systems, pharmacogenomics and stratified medicine, as well as the challenges of implementing new developments into clinical practice and the community, globally. In addition to more traditional Original Research and Review Articles, GHEG will support submission of Resources and Analyses that provide a framework for integrating and facilitating genomics and global health studies.

The Editor-in-Chief of GHEG is Dr Manjinder Sandhu, head of the Global Health Group based at the University of Cambridge and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. The international Editorial team includes recognised leaders in global health, epidemiology and genomics from around the world who have taken a lead in shifting attention and action to global health and populations, as well as a wider Editorial Board that will reflect and emphasize the broad scope of the field.

Dr Sandhu said, “I am committed to making GHEG an innovative, engaging and practical resource for the global health research community through which we can publish new scientific research, exchange ideas within and across our related disciplines and share resources to facilitate efforts to increase our understanding of human health and shape effective disease management worldwide.”

Professor Alex Brown, Deputy Director of the South Australia Health & Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI) and one of the journal’s Associate Editors commented, “I am delighted to be involved with GHEG, an exciting venture which recognises the relevance and importance of the work being undertaken in the field of global health, epidemiology and genomics and the widespread benefits to be gained by applying technological advances and innovations to research into population health including within disadvantaged population groups. By facilitating discussion and encouraging the sharing of resources GHEG looks to actively support contributions in these areas.”

Katy Christomanou, Publishing Director for STM Journals at Cambridge University Press, added, “This launch affirms our long-term commitment in the global health field and reflects our strong investment in maintaining and extending our successful presence in this area. We are highly enthusiastic at the prospect of working alongside such an outstanding editorial team.”

Global Health, Epidemiology and Genomics will be hosted on Cambridge’s industry-leading platform, Cambridge Journals Online (CJO). The Journal will benefit from a range of the latest author services including article level usage metrics and Altmetric data. In addition, for articles submitted during 2015 and 2016, Cambridge University Press will waive all article processing charges.

For more information please visit the journal website: journals.cambridge.org/gheg

The future of heart and lung transplantation

Blog Post by Clive Lewis, Andrew Klein, Nick Lees and Stephen Webb, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Papworth Everard, Cambridge, CB23 3RE

The field of transplantation has spawned more new specialties and Nobel prize winners than any other in medicine. Christiaan Barnard’s performed the first heart transplant in 1969 in Cape Town, South Africa. The first lung transplant was performed even earlier, in 1963, by Hardy and colleagues at the University of Mississippi in the USA, although two decades passed before this procedure become a viable option for end stage lung disease. Heart transplant is now the treatment of choice for selected patients with advanced heart failure, with over 85,000 procedures having been performed worldwide during the last 40 years. On average, more than 5000 heart transplants are undertaken every year, in more than 225 centres.

Two important challenges transplantation are the increasing numbers of referrals, and the falling number of suitable donor organs available. This has lead to a major imbalance between supply and demand. Read more of this post

Post-thoracotomy regional analgesia

Blog Post by Dr Darcy M Pearson FRCA, Specialty Trainee in Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Papworth Everard, Cambridge, UK and Dr Stephen T Webb MB BCh BAO FRCA EDIC, Consultant in Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Papworth Everard, Cambridge, UK

Inadequate postoperative pain relief after thoracotomy increases the risk of respiratory complications and chronic post-surgical pain. A number of regional analgesic techniques may be used for post-thoracotomy analgesia including intercostal,intrapleural, extrapleural, paravertebral, intrathecal and epidural analgesia. Extrapleural and paravertebral techniques may be performed by percutaneously or under direct vision and may involve single injections or continuous infusions. Read more of this post

Transoesophageal echocardiography in mitral valve surgery

Blog Post by Barbora Parizkova, Stephen Webb 

Mitral valve (MV) repair and MV replacement are classified as Class I and IIA indications for intraoperative transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association.

Recently the cause of MV pathology in most industrialised nations has changed over the last decades from predominantly rheumatic to degenerative and ischemic valve disease. Rheumatic heart disease usually presents as mitral stenosis, while myxomatous degeneration is the most common cause of native mitral regurgitation. Mitral regurgitation can also develop in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, endocarditis or acute myocardial infarction with papillary muscle rupture. Read more of this post

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